Dividing Quran into Chapters
The Quran is divided into chapters, called surahs, and verses, called ayahs. This system of division dates to the time of Prophet Muhammad, who transmitted the text orally to his followers. The early Muslims developed a system of memorization and recitation to preserve the text for future generations.
The order of the surahs is known as "the arrangement of pause" and was established by the Prophet Muhammad through divine revelation. The content and length of each surah were also determined by Allah and transmitted to the prophet via Jibril.
There are 114 surahs in the Quran, each with a distinct length, style, and content. The surahs were not arranged chronologically but based on divine guidance. The first surah, Surah Al-Fatiha, is the most important and foundational as it contains the essence of the entire Quran and is recited multiple times in daily prayers.
Surah Al-Baqarah, the longest surah, contains detailed instructions on various matters, while Surah Al-Kahf and Surah Ya-Sin are considered important and are often recited on special occasions.
Ayatul Kursi, is a powerful prayer for protection.
"Allah! There is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of [all] existence. Neither drowsiness overtakes Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they encompass not a thing of His knowledge except for what He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and their preservation tires Him not. And He is the Most High, the Supreme [glory].” Quran 2:255
Reciting Surah Al-Mulk before going to bed provides blessings and protection to the reciter in the grave, and the Surah will intercede for the reciter on the Day of Resurrection."
The length of each surah is believed to be related to its content and purpose, with longer surahs often containing more detailed instructions or narratives.
There is a historical account of Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf AL-Thaqafi, the Umayyad governor of Iraq, commanding scholars to divide the Quran into thirty equal parts during the 8th century CE. This division was meant to facilitate the recitation of the entire Quran in one month, particularly during the month of Ramadan.
While this division is not considered to be a part of the original structure and organization of the Quran, it has become a popular method of recitation and study among Muslims, particularly in the Arabic-speaking world. Many printed editions of the Quran include this division, with each of the thirty parts referred to as a juz'.
The hizb and rub' division further divides the Quran into 60 equal parts and is commonly used for reading and completing the recitation of the Quran within a specific period. This division was introduced during the Ottoman era and is believed to have been based on a complex system of counting verses.
Many printed editions of the Quran include the juz', hizb, and rub' divisions, making it easier for Muslims to read and study the Quran. These divisions are also commonly used in Islamic schools and madrasas for teaching and memorization.